CBD is gaining the spotlight these days because of the potential benefits it provides. In order to understand how CBD is so effective in the prevention of some diseases, one must have an understanding of the human Endocannabinoid System. The Endocannabinoid System is the place where all the work of CBD is done. This system is the part of the body which is responsible for most of the vital processes of the body including the immune system, central nervous system, digestive system, and memory and learning. The Endocannabinoid System manages and controls the natural responses of the body. However, the system can become weakened because of external injuries or ailments, and then CBD comes into action to strengthen the functions of the Endocannabinoid system.
The endogenous cannabinoid system ECS contains a number of cells and molecules that are spread throughout the body including the brain, connective tissues, organs, immune cells, and glands. Research shows that the endocannabinoid system can be affected by external cannabinoids such as CBD. According to the National Institutes of Health, the endocannabinoid system can be manipulated by external sources like CBD in order to treat a number of medical ailments.
The endocannabinoid system consists of the cannabinoid receptors that are spread throughout the body. The cannabinoid receptor 1 CB1 is found in abundance in the central nervous system while the cannabinoid receptor 2 CB2 is found in the gastrointestinal tract, immune cells, and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are responsible for managing various functions in the body that includes immune function, pain, sleep, mood, memory, digestion, fertility, and motor control.
These are the naturally occurring cannabinoids of the body but sometimes the natural endocannabinoid system is disturbed and doesn't perform in an optimal manner. Here comes the role of CBD, CBD does not actually fit or bind itself with the CB1 and CB2 receptors, rather it stimulates the functions of both the receptors. Due to this interaction, the CB1 receptors become more active and work efficiently in different parts of the body. Since THC binds itself to the receptors and produces psychoactive elements, CBD, on the other hand, is proved to be the negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor. It means that CBD that it can inhibit the psychotic potential of THC by modifying the CB1 receptor.
Talking about the second major cannabinoid receptor that is the CB2 receptor, being responsible for so many functions is also a reason for the emergence of inflammation. While CBD has a positive effect on the CB1receptor and it stimulates its functions, CBD has a negative effect on the CB2 receptor which means that by using CBD the CB2 receptor weakens in its efficiency. The anti-inflammatory qualities of the CBD come due to this mechanism, but it has been researched that the effect is very minute and negligible. It is still argued that how CBD can result in positive effects on the endocannabinoid system when it affects the CB1 receptor indirectly and the CB2 receptor only marginally. Well, the outcomes of CBD stems from both the indirect effects on the endocannabinoid system and pleiotropy, which is the potential of CBD to influence the wide variety of all the systems in the body.
CBD has two other effects on the endocannabinoid system that is it modifies the activity of the enzymes and protein and the concentration of anandamide which is the naturally occurring cannabinoid.
Considering the influence of CBD on the enzymes, it is often forgotten that the body does not only contains the receptors and neurotransmitters but also the enzymes that regulate the whole mechanism. The endocannabinoid system has the key enzyme of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). FAAH is the enzyme which breaks down the functioning of anandamide and weakens it, while CBD is known as an inhibitor of FAAH. This means that CBD does not let the FAAH work efficiently and weakens it which results in the increased concentration of anandamide, which leads to the positive impact of the endocannabinoid system. It can be noticed here that CBD does not affect directly the anandamide it is also been discovered that CBD is a weak inhibitor of FAAH so its effects can not wholly be attributed to the system of enzymes.
Another indirect effect of the CBD is on the fatty acid binding protein (FABP). These proteins are responsible for binding, in the case of the endocannabinoid system, it binds to the synapseanandamide and transports it outside the synapse where it is broken down or metabolized by the FAAH. So CBD inhibits the binding of FABP to the anandamide, rather it attracts the FABP and takes it to place efficiently resulting in less metabolism of anandamide and increase its effects on the system.
CBD also has other effects on the body, CBD binds itself to the G-protein receptor known as TRPV-1 which mediates the body temperature and perceptions of pain and inflammation. CBD is also used to activate the serotonin receptors and can also inhibit the ID-1 gene, which causes various types of cancers.
There are many ways in which the human endocannabinoid system is affected by CBD. It includes direct and indirect influences on the system. However, CBD has a stimulating and enhancing effect on the functions of the endocannabinoid system. The overall effect of CBD can be achieved by taking the supplements regularly so that the processes that are governed by the endocannabinoid system can be improved over time.
A healthy endocannabinoid system not only manages and controls the inner processes of the body but it also has an effect on the social behaviour of a person. It acts as a bridge between the mind and the body and the cannabinoids influence the relationship of a person with its external environment. The proper working of the endocannabinoid system is crucial for a healthy body and mind, if there is a deficiency of cannabinoids in the system then this deficiency can be removed by the CBD.